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Refining Processes Handbook WORK



Presented in the book are refinery processes, such as crude desalting and atmospheric and vacuum distillation; gasoline manufacturing processes, such as catalytic reforming, catalytic cracking, alkylation, and isomerization; hydrodesulfurization processes for naphtha, kerosene, diesel, and reduced crude; conversion processes such as distillate and resid hydrocracking; resid conversion processes such as delayed coking, visbreaking, solvent deasphalting, and bitumen manufacture; pollution control processes such as sulfur manufacture, sulfur plant tail gas treatment, and stack gas desulfurization. Also presented here are operations performed in refinery off-site facilities, such as product storage and blending, refinery steam and fuel systems, refinery boiler feedwater treatment, and wastewater treatment.




Refining processes handbook



It must be recognized, however, that many variants of the same process are found in the industry, and the operating conditions can be quite diverse, depending on the type of catalyst used and feedstock processed. We have insufficient space for bibliographic comparison and evaluations of identical basic processes from different licensors. The data presented here represent typical industrial operations practiced in refineries today. Where no mention is made of recent contributions to the literature, no slight is intended. The few references quoted are those where an industrial practice is known to have originated.


Chapter 1 covers atmospheric and vacuum distillation and crude desalting. Chapter 2 covers the refinery hydrotreating processes: naphtha hydrotreating, kerosene hydrotreating, gas oil hydrodesulfurization and atmospheric resid desulfurization. Chapter 3 presents the distillate hydrocracking, mild hydrocracking, and resid hydrocracking processes. Chapter 4 covers gasoline manufacturing processes: catalytic reforming, alkylation, isomerization, catalytic cracking, and MTBE manufacture. Chapter 5 looks at the manufacture of hydrogen for hydrotreating and hydrocracking process and its recovery from some of the hydrogen-bearing streams coming from these units. Chapter 6 presents refinery residuum processing units, on delayed coking, visbreaking, solvent deasphalting, and bitumen blowing.


The third volume of a multi-volume set of the most comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of the advances of petroleum refining designs and applications, written by one of the world's most well-known process engineers, this is a must-have for any chemical, process, or petroleum engineer.


This volume continues the most up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of the most significant and recent changes to petroleum refining, presenting the state-of-the-art to the engineer, scientist, or student.


Useful as a textbook, this is also an excellent, handy go-to reference for the veteran engineer, a volume no chemical or process engineering library should be without. Written by one of the world's foremost authorities, this book sets the standard for the industry and is an integral part of the petroleum refining renaissance. It is truly a must-have for any practicing engineer or student in this area.


Steven A. Treese retired from Phillips 66 in 2013 as the Hydro processing Team Lead after 40 years; but continues to take on the occasional consulting assignment in process engineering and refining. He started his professional career with Union Oil Company of California in 1973 as a Research Engineer with a B.S. in Chemical Engineering from Washington State University. He followed company heritages through Unocal, Tosco, Phillips, ConocoPhillips and Phillips 66. Steve's range of experience includes catalyst development, hydro processing, hydrogen production, utilities, sulfur recovery, geothermal, shale oil, nitrogen fertilizers, process design, procurement and licensing. He is a licensed Professional Engineer. Steve has several publications, a few patents and was on the 1994 NPRA Question and Answer Panel. He is a member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Steve's hobbies include woodworking, boating, fermentation and photography. He is a mentor for FIRST Robotics Team 624, CRyptonite, in Katy, Texas.


We have interests in 21 refineries worldwide. They have the capacity to process a total of around 2.9 million barrels of crude oil a day (Shell share) into a wide range of products, including gasoline, diesel, heating oil, aviation fuel, marine fuel, lubricants, LPG, sulphur and bitumen. Approximately 36% of our refining capacity is in Europe and Africa, with 40% in the Americas and 24% in Asia and Oceania.


Distillation (Chapter 7) has remained a major refinery process, and almost every crude oil that enters a refinery is subjected to this process. However, not all crude oils yield the same distillation products. In fact, the nature of the crude oil dictates the processes that may be required for refining. And balancing product yield with demand is a necessary part of refinery operations(Speight and Ozum, 2002; Parkash, 2003; Hsu and Robinson, 2006; Gary et al., 2007; Speight, 2014). However, the balancing of product yield and market demand, without the manufacture of large quantities of fractions having low commercial value, has long required processes for the conversion of hydrocarbons of one molecular weight range and/or structure into some other molecular weight range and/or structure. Basic processes for this are still the so-called cracking processes in which relatively high-boiling constituents carbons are cracked, that is, thermally decomposed into lower-molecular-weight, smaller, lower-boiling molecules, although reforming alkylation, polymerization, and hydrogen-refining processes have wide applications in making premium-quality products (Speight and Ozum, 2002; Parkash, 2003; Hsu and Robinson, 2006; Gary et al., 2007; Speight, 2014).


There is a renaissance that is occurring in chemical and process engineering, and it is crucial for today's scientists, engineers, technicians, and operators to stay current. With so many changes over the last few decades in equipment and processes, petroleum refining is almost a living document, constantly needing updating. With no new refineries being built, companies are spending their capital re-tooling and adding on to existing plants. Refineries are like small cities, today, as they grow bigger and bigger and more and more complex. A huge percentage of a refinery can be changed, literally, from year to year, to account for the type of crude being refined or to integrate new equipment or processes.


This book is the most up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of the most significant and recent changes to petroleum refining, presenting the state-of-the-art to the engineer, scientist, or student. Useful as a textbook, this is also an excellent, handy go-to reference for the veteran engineer, a volume no chemical or process engineering library should be without. Written by one of the world's foremost authorities, this book sets the standard for the industry and is an integral part of the petroleum refining renaissance. It is truly a must-have for any practicing engineer or student in this area.


Petroleum refining involves refining crude petroleum as well as producing raw materials for the petrochemical industry. This book covers current refinery processes and process-types that are likely to come on-stream during the next three to five decades. The book includes (1) comparisons of conventional feedstocks with heavy oil, tar sand bitumen, and bio-feedstocks; (2) properties and refinability of the various feedstocks; (3) thermal processes versus hydroprocesses; and (4) the influence of refining on the environment.


Dr. Meyers was manager of Energy and Environmental Projects at TRW(now Northrop Grumman) in Redondo Beach, CA, and is now president of RAMTECHLimited. He is coinventor of the Gravimelt process for desulfurization anddemineralization of coal for air pollution and water pollution control and wasmanager of the Department of Energy project leading to the construction andsuccessful operation of a first-of-a-kind Gravimelt Process Integrated TestPlant. Dr. Meyers is the inventor of and was project manager for theDOE-sponsored Magnetohydrodynamics Seed Regeneration Project which has resultedin the construction and successful operation of a pilot plant for production ofpotassium formate, a chemical utilized for plasma electricity generation andair pollution control. He also managed TRW efforts in magnetohydrodynamicselectricity generating combustor and plasma channel development. Dr. Meyersmanaged the pilot-scale DoE project for determining the hydrodynamics ofsynthetic fuels. He is a coinventor of several thermo-oxidative stable polymerswhich have achieved commercial success as the GE PEI, Upjohn Polyimides, andRhone-Poulenc bismaleimide resins. He has also managed projects forphotochemistry, chemical lasers, flue gas scrubbing, oil shale analysis andrefining, petroleum analysis and refining, global change measurement from spacesatellites, analysis and mitigation (carbon dioxide and ozone),hydrometallurgical refining, soil and hazardous waste remediation, novelpolymers synthesis, modeling of the economics of space transportation systems,space rigidizable structures, and chemiluminescence-based devices.


Assessment of learning outcomes should be designed to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of student learning outcomes. It involves observations of the characteristics of students, curriculum, programs and units to make informed decisions to guide continuous improvement of the learning process. It should be an inquiry-driven process and performed continuously with an eye on refining the degree assessment process. The assessment process should follow the principles of continuous refinement, implying that it should follow the cycle of observation, refinement, and implementation.


Knowledge of the main processes and operations in the exploration of natural gas and oil, from the extraction and refining, to the downstream processing in the main segments of the petrochemical industry. Knowledge of fundamental methods of characterization of the main fractions of oil, and estimate of thermophysical properties, oriented towards the simulation and optimization of these processes. Knowledge of the state of the art relative to alternative process technologies. Development of analysis capabilities of these processes, and indentification of opportunities for improvement and optimization of these processes. Experience of project development in processual and environmental improvement, through the solution of focused case-studies. 041b061a72


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