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Nonmalignant Tumor

Tumors are abnormal growths in your body. They can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Benign tumors grow only in one place. They cannot spread or invade other parts of your body. Even so, they can be dangerous if they press on vital organs, such as your brain.

nonmalignant tumor

Tumors are made up of extra cells. Normally, cells grow and divide to form new cells as your body needs them. When cells grow old, they die, and new cells take their place. Sometimes, this process goes wrong. New cells form when your body does not need them, and old cells do not die when they should. These extra cells can divide without stopping and may form tumor.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy, precision, and linearity of the CellSearch system and evaluate the number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) per 7.5 mL of blood in healthy subjects, patients with nonmalignant diseases, and patients with a variety of metastatic carcinomas.

Experimental design: The CellSearch system was used to enumerate CTCs in 7.5 mL of blood. Blood samples spiked with cells from tumor cell lines were used to establish analytical accuracy, reproducibility, and linearity. Prevalence of CTCs was determined in blood from 199 patients with nonmalignant diseases, 964 patients with metastatic carcinomas, and 145 healthy donors.

Results: Enumeration of spiked tumor cells was linear over the range of 5 to 1,142 cells, with an average recovery of >/=85% at each spike level. Only 1 of the 344 (0.3%) healthy and nonmalignant disease subjects had >/=2 CTCs per 7.5 mL of blood. In 2,183 blood samples from 964 metastatic carcinoma patients, CTCs ranged from 0 to 23,618 CTCs per 7.5 mL (mean, 60 +/- 693 CTCs per 7.5 mL), and 36% (781 of 2,183) of the specimens had >/=2 CTCs. Detection of >/=2 CTCs occurred at the following rates: 57% (107 of 188) of prostate cancers, 37% (489 of 1,316) of breast cancers, 37% (20 of 53) of ovarian cancers, 30% (99 of 333) of colorectal cancers, 20% (34 of 168) of lung cancers, and 26% (32 of 125) of other cancers.

Conclusions: The CellSearch system can be standardized across multiple laboratories and may be used to determine the clinical utility of CTCs. CTCs are extremely rare in healthy subjects and patients with nonmalignant diseases but present in various metastatic carcinomas with a wide range of frequencies.

A benign tumor is a mass of cells (tumor) that does not invade neighboring tissue or metastasize (spread throughout the body). Compared to malignant (cancerous) tumors, benign tumors generally have a slower growth rate. Benign tumors have relatively well differentiated cells. They are often surrounded by an outer surface (fibrous sheath of connective tissue) or stay contained within the epithelium. Common examples of benign tumors include moles and uterine fibroids.

Some forms of benign tumors may be harmful to health. Benign tumor growth causes a mass effect that can compress neighboring tissues. This can lead to nerve damage, blood flow reduction (ischemia), tissue death (necrosis), or organ damage. The health effects of benign tumor growth may be more prominent if the tumor is contained within an enclosed space such as the cranium, respiratory tract, sinus, or bones. For example, unlike most benign tumors elsewhere in the body, benign brain tumors can be life-threatening. Tumors may exhibit behaviors characteristic of their cell type of origin; as an example, endocrine tumors such as thyroid adenomas and adrenocortical adenomas may overproduce certain hormones.

Many types of benign tumors have the potential to become cancerous (malignant) through a process known as tumor progression. For this reason and other possible harms, some benign tumors are removed by surgery. When removed, benign tumors usually do not return. Exceptions to this rule may indicate malignant transformation.

Benign tumors are very diverse; they may be asymptomatic or may cause specific symptoms, depending on their anatomic location and tissue type. They grow outward, producing large, rounded masses which can cause what is known as a "mass effect". This growth can cause compression of local tissues or organs, leading to many effects, such as blockage of ducts, reduced blood flow (ischaemia), tissue death (necrosis) and nerve pain or damage.[1] Some tumors also produce hormones that can lead to life-threatening situations. Insulinomas can produce large amounts of insulin, causing hypoglycemia.[2][3] Pituitary adenomas can cause elevated levels of hormones such as growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1, which cause acromegaly; prolactin; ACTH and cortisol, which cause Cushing's disease; TSH, which causes hyperthyroidism; and FSH and LH.[4] Bowel intussusception can occur with various benign colonic tumors.[5] Cosmetic effects can be caused by tumors, especially those of the skin, possibly causing psychological or social discomfort for the person with the tumor.[6] Vascular tissue tumors can bleed, in some cases leading to anemia.[7]

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a familial cancer syndrome caused by mutations in the APC gene. In FAP, adenomatous polyps are present in the colon. The polyps progress into colon cancer unless removed.[15] The APC gene is a tumor suppressor. Its protein product is involved in many cellular processes. Inactivation of the APC gene leads to the buildup of a protein called β-catenin. This protein activates two transcription factors: T-cell factor (TCF) and lymphoid enhancer factor (LEF). These factors cause the upregulation of many genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis (programmed cell death), causing the growth of benign tumors.[16]

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused by mutations in the genes TSC1 and TSC2. TSC1 produces the protein hamartin. TSC2 produces the protein tuberin. This disorder presents with many benign hamartomatous tumors including angiofibromas, renal angiomyolipomas, and pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis. Tuberin and hamartin inhibit the mTOR protein in normal cellular physiology. Inactivation of the TSC tumor suppressors causes an increase in mTOR activity. This leads to the activation of genes and the production of proteins that increase cell growth.[17][18][19]

Benign tumors of bone can be similar macroscopically and require a combination of a clinical history with cytogenetic, molecular, and radiologic tests for diagnosis.[21] Three common forms of benign bone tumors with are giant cell tumor of bone, osteochondroma, and enchondroma; other forms of benign bone tumors exist but may be less prevalent.

Giant cell tumors of bone frequently occur in long bone epiphyses of the appendicular skeleton or the sacrum of the axial skeleton. Local growth can cause destruction of neighboring cortical bone and soft tissue, leading to pain and limiting range of motion. The characteristic radiologic finding of giant cell tumors of bone is a lytic lesion that does not have marginal sclerosis of bone. On histology, giant cells of fused osteoclasts are seen as a response to neoplastic mononucleated cells. Notably, giant cells are not unique among benign bone tumors to giant cell tumors of bone. Molecular characteristics of the neoplastic cells causing giant cell tumors of bone indicate an origin of pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells that adopt preosteoblastic markers. Cytogenetic causes of giant cell tumors of bone involve telomeres. Treatment involves surgical curettage with adjuvant bisphosphonates.

Osteochondromas form cartilage-capped projections of bone. Structures such as the marrow cavity and cortical bone of the osteochondroma are contiguous to those of the originating bone. Sites of origin often involve metaphyses of long bones. While many osteochondromas occur spontaneously, there are cases in which several osteochondromas can occur in the same individual; these may be linked to a genetic condition known as hereditary multiple osteochondromas. Osteochondroma appears on X-ray as a projecting mass that often points away from joints.[21] These tumors stop growing with the closure of the parental bone's growth plates. Failure to stop growth can be indicative of transformation to malignant chondrosarcoma. Treatment is not indicated unless symptomatic. In that case, surgical excision is often curative.

Enchondromas are benign tumors of hyaline cartilage. Within a bone, enchondromas are often found in metaphyses. They can be found in many types of bone, including small bones, long bones, and the axial skeleton. X-ray of enchondromas shows well-defined borders and a stippled appearance.[21] Presentation of multiple enchondromas is consistent with multiple enchondromatosis (Ollier Disease). Treatment of enchondromas involves surgical curettage and grafting.

Lipomas are benign, subcutaneous tumors of fat cells (adipocytes). They are usually painless, slow-growing, and mobile masses that can occur anywhere in the body where there are fat cells, but are typically found on the trunk and upper extremities. [22]

Lipomas are usually diagnosed clinically, although imaging (ultrasound, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging) may be utilized to assist with the diagnosis of lipomas in atypical locations.[22] The main treatment for lipomas is surgical excision, after which the tumor is examined with histopathology to confirm the diagnosis.[22] The prognosis for benign lipomas excellent and recurrence after excision is rare, but may occur if the removal was incomplete.[23]

One of the most important factors in classifying a tumor as benign or malignant is its invasive potential. If a tumor lacks the ability to invade adjacent tissues or spread to distant sites by metastasizing then it is benign, whereas invasive or metastatic tumors are malignant.[1] For this reason, benign tumors are not classed as cancer.[25] Benign tumors will grow in a contained area usually encapsulated in a fibrous connective tissue capsule. The growth rates of benign and malignant tumors also differ; benign tumors generally grow more slowly than malignant tumors. Although benign tumors pose a lower health risk than malignant tumors, they both can be life-threatening in certain situations. There are many general characteristics which apply to either benign or malignant tumors, but sometimes one type may show characteristics of the other. For example, benign tumors are mostly well differentiated and malignant tumors are often undifferentiated. However, undifferentiated benign tumors and differentiated malignant tumors can occur.[26][27] Although benign tumors generally grow slowly, cases of fast-growing benign tumors have also been documented.[28] Some malignant tumors are mostly non-metastatic such as in the case of basal-cell carcinoma.[29] CT and chest radiography can be a useful diagnostic exam in visualizing a benign tumor and differentiating it from a malignant tumor. The smaller the tumor on a radiograph the more likely it is to be benign as 80% of lung nodules less than 2 cm in diameter are benign. Most benign nodules are smoothed radiopaque densities with clear margins but these are not exclusive signs of benign tumors.[30] 041b061a72


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