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Exactly What I Said: Translating Words And Worl... [VERIFIED]

In 1981, biblical scholar Benjamin Kedar-Kopfstein stated that the Old Testament work is largely based on the formal structure of biblical Hebrew.[100] In 1989, Kedar-Kopfstein said, "In my linguistic research in connection with the Hebrew Bible and translations, I often refer to the English edition of what is known as the 'New World Translation.' In so doing, I find my feeling repeatedly confirmed that this work reflects an honest endeavor to achieve an understanding of the text that is as accurate as possible. Giving evidence of a broad command of the original language, it renders the original words into a second language understandably without deviating unnecessarily from the specific structure of the Hebrew. ... Every statement of language allows for a certain latitude in interpreting or translating. So the linguistic solution in any given case may be open to debate. But I have never discovered in the 'New World Translation' any biased intent to read something into the text that it does not contain."[101] In 1993 Kedar-Kopfstein said that the NWT is one of his occasionally quoted reference works.[102]

Exactly What I Said: Translating Words and Worl...


So we got two stories for you today, two creative efforts to change the words we call ourselves and each other. We're going to come back to Ngofeen's discovery that black was the new noir and what happened next. But first, a story that really shows the inner workings of how the French language is so closely guarded. And it starts with this other word.

MPUTUBWELE: But what Nelly's up against - wanting to change a French word - is a big deal because, in France, language is a matter of national identity. It's considered the foundation stone for the feeling of belonging to a community - that's not my words; that's the government's words. There's a council, set up hundreds of years ago, to guard the language. They're called l'Academie Francaise. There's 40 members known as the immortals. They dress in these, like, embroidered boleros and meet in a cathedral.

MPUTUBWELE: So that's what we're going to call them - DGLF. Their job is to identify any specialized terms, like all these English words that get created all the time - like smart home, net neutrality, freemium, downcycling, podcasting (laughter) - and help Frenchify them.

MPUTUBWELE: The first time I talked to Louis-Georges on the phone, he said something like, if you're a minority, and you want to see change happen, you can't be an idiot. You have to be strategic. And this is one of those moments where I see exactly what he meant.

In order to continue our analysis of work, an analysis linked with the word of the Bible telling man that he is to subdue the earth, we must concentrate our attention on work in the subjective sense, much more than we did on the objective significance, barely touching upon the vast range of problems known intimately and in detail to scholars in various fields and also, according to their specializations, to those who work. If the words of the Book of Genesis to which we refer in this analysis of ours speak of work in the objective sense in an indirect way, they also speak only indirectly of the subject of work; but what they say is very eloquent and is full of great significance.

A systematic opportunity for thinking and evaluating in this way, and in a certain sense a stimulus for doing so, is provided by the quickening process of the development of a onesidedly materialistic civilization, which gives prime importance to the objective dimension of work, while the subjective dimension-everything in direct or indirect relationship with the subject of work-remains on a secondary level. In all cases of this sort, in every social situation of this type, there is a confusion or even a reversal of the order laid down from the beginning by the words of the Book of Genesis: man is treated as an instrument of production12, whereas he-he alone, independently of the work he does-ought to be treated as the effective subject of work and its true maker and creator. Precisely this reversal of order, whatever the programme or name under which it occurs, should rightly be called "capitalism"-in the sense more fully explained below. Everybody knows that capitalism has a definite historical meaning as a system, an economic and social system, opposed to "socialism" or "communism". But in the light of the analysis of the fundamental reality of the whole economic process-first and foremost of the production structure that work is-it should be recognized that the error of early capitalism can be repeated wherever man is in a way treated on the same level as the whole complex of the material means of production, as an instrument and not in accordance with the true dignity of his work-that is to say, where he is not treated as subject and maker, and for this very reason as the true purpose of the whole process of production.

Speaking of the protection of the just rights of workers according to their individual professions, we must of course always keep in mind that which determines the subjective character of work in each profession, but at the same time, indeed before all else, we must keep in mind that which conditions the specific dignity of the subject of the work. The activity of union organizations opens up many possibilities in this respect, including their efforts to instruct and educate the workers and to foster their selfeducation. Praise is due to the work of the schools, what are known as workers' or people's universities and the training programmes and courses which have developed and are still developing this field of activity. It is always to be hoped that, thanks to the work of their unions, workers will not only have more, but above all be more: in other words, that they will realize their humanity more fully in every respect.

This description of creation, which we find in the very first chapter of the Book of Genesis, is also in a sense the first "gospel of work". For it shows what the dignity of work consists of: it teaches that man ought to imitate God, his Creator, in working, because man alone has the unique characteristic of likeness to God. Man ought to imitate God both in working and also in resting, since God himself wished to present his own creative activity under the form of work and rest. This activity by God in the world always continues, as the words of Christ attest: "My Father is working still ..."32: he works with creative power by sustaining in existence the world that he called into being from nothing, and he works with salvific power in the hearts of those whom from the beginning he has destined for "rest"33 in union with himself in his "Father's house"34. Therefore man's work too not only requires a rest every "seventh day"35), but also cannot consist in the mere exercise of human strength in external action; it must leave room for man to prepare himself, by becoming more and more what in the will of God he ought to be, for the "rest" that the Lord reserves for his servants and friends36.

Such a vision of the values of human work, or in other words such a spirituality of work, fully explains what we read in the same section of the Council's Pastoral Constitution with regard to the right meaning of progress: "A person is more precious for what he is than for what he has. Similarly, all that people do to obtain greater justice, wider brotherhood, and a more humane ordering of social relationships has greater worth than technical advances. For these advances can supply the material for human progress, but of themselves alone they can never actually bring it about"80.

In the early professional translation, there was little regard for translation accuracy. This was the period of translation 'adaptation', as there was still no accuracy in the translation of individual words. For example, when a translator did not understand a word's meaning when translating, they would skip it entirely. This gave the translators a lot of control over their audiences, since they ended up shaping the texts that the people read.

Alternatively, tap the pen icon and write a phrase in English one character at a time using your finger or stylus. As you type or write characters on the screen, the app tries to predict what you plan to write in full by displaying possible word and letter combinations. Continue writing or select one of the suggested words if it matches what you intended to enter. At some point, the app may suggest the entire phrase you want to enter. If so, select the phrase.

You can speak in one language, and the app will transcribe what you say into another language. Tap the microphone icon at the top of the screen and speak your word or phrase into the app. Google Translate then translates your words in the target language. Tap the Speaker icon to hear the translation.

Simply knowing what an abbreviation stands for and how to translate the underlying Latin words does not necessarily tell you how the abbreviation is used in actual modern practice. These little remnants of Latin have had a long and colorful life separated from their original language and context.

It's nice to be able to read his last words in my native language. It was such a sudden death and I only got wind of it recently though it's been over a month. I'm glad to have been able to read this beautiful narrative and thank you for your work in translating it. 041b061a72


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